Posted on

Diamonds from Pelé’s Hair

(Source: Royal Society of Chemistry)

Diamonds Made from Hair

We had an unusual request to the Chemistry World office this week. A producer from Simon Mayo’s BBC Radio 2 drivetime programme wanted to know if it’s possible to make a diamond from human hair.

Pelé before the final game of his career, Giants Stadium, New Jersey, 1 October 1977. From on a CC-BY-3.0 licence

The query was prompted by the news that Brazilian football legend Pelé had announced a range of diamonds, each made from a strand of his hair, to commemorate each of the 1283 goals he scored in his professional football career.

It seemed a fairly straightforward request – there’s plenty of carbon in hair and it’s certainly possible to make diamond industrially from a carbon source – so I volunteered to take the call.

I read around first, to find some extra facts and figures about diamonds. Most of these come from ‘the internet’, as I didn’t have much time before broadcast, so please forgive any inaccuracies.

Pele’s hair caught on a radio antenna in Hawaiʻi

My search took an immediate, albeit interesting, diversion when I discovered that Pele’s hair is already a known geological phenomenon. Rather than gemstones derived from a footballer’s foliage, Pele’s hair is an extraordinary type of volcanic glass, formed when molten rock is thrown into the air and extruded by the wind into hair-like golden fibres. These fibres travel downwind of the volcano, cool and solidify where they land. These unusual glass structures are named after the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes rather than the Brazilian godfather of football.

After this brief foray into volcanology, a reworded search confirmed that Pelé really is turning his hair into diamonds, using one of the established techniques for manufacturing synthetic diamond – the high temperature, high pressure, or HTHP method. This is the method that most closely mimics a diamond‘s natural geological formation. As its name suggests, pressures in the vicinity of 7GPa at more than 1700°C are used to grow fairly large stones using a diamond grit seed and carbon dissolved in a molten metal solvent. The exact conditions do vary – one company that makes diamonds from cremains(‘dead dog diamonds’, according to Simon Mayo) uses 5-6GPa at 1600-2000°C. The size of the resulting diamond depends on a number of factors, not least the time for which the conditions are maintained: De Beers once made a 25 carat (5g) stone by holding these conditions for six weeks.

Just in case Simon asked me live on air, I thought I should figure out how big a diamond made from a strand of hair could be, which means estimating how much carbon a single strand of the ex-Santos striker’s hair might contain. Hair is made of a number of different proteins, predominantly keratin, but also contains oils, water and a wide variety of other compounds (hair is routinely used for toxicological or narcotic testing, due to its tendency to accumulate drug metabolites, heavy metals and other toxins). We don’t know what Pelé has been exposed to (if he’s a fan of seafood there may be above average mercury concentration, for example) so I took average values for everything.

An average 12cm human hair (at least in one study) weighs 0.62mg. Making the sweeping assumption that hair contains a nice round 50% carbon by weight, that gives us 0.31mg of carbon from a single strand. If we make another assumption and convert all of that into diamond, we get an unimpressive 0.00155 carat gem. Apparently, each of the Pelé hair diamonds on sale (yours for just £4500) weighs 1 carat. If these gems are pure footballer fuzz, and don’t contain any generic carbon, they would need to be made from around 650 12cm hairs. There are around 100,000 hairs on an average human scalp, so to make the full run of 1283 diamonds, Pelé would need to shave his head completely 8.3 times.

If you’re a committed football fan, these diamonds could be a good investment, and at £4500 are a snip compared to one made from a clip of Beethoven’s barnet, which sold on ebay in 2007 for £121,000.


*Algordanza UK will offer diamonds made from the carbon in hair from 1st July 2018


Posted on

Diamond Purchase Process

Real Diamonds from Cremated Remains & Hair

Most people don’t ever feel OK or all right about the loss of a loved one. Accepting the reality that our loved one is physically gone and recognizing that this new reality is the permanent reality is heartbreaking. We will never like this reality or make it OK, but eventually, we accept it. We learn to live with it. It is the new norm with which we must learn to live. We must try to live now in a world where our loved one is missing.

A memorial diamond is the most precious way to keep your loved one with you at all times. The ALGORDANZA memorial diamond is a genuine diamond and shows the same physical, chemical and optical properties as a natural diamond.

On average, the cremation of an adult human being generates 2.5 kg of ashes. We need at least 500g of these ashes or at least 10g of hair (the average haircut for most) for the synthesis. An Algordanza representative will visit to do the necessary arrangements or we will contact your local funeral director to do so. To create a memorial diamond, we have to simulate the conditions, under which a natural diamond forms itself over decades. Diamonds are created under vast pressure and enormous heat naturally in the earth.

The carbon, isolated solely from the provided cremation ashes or hair, is submitted to our high temperature high pressure machine. The molecular structure of the carbon first becomes graphite and as more heat and pressure are applied, the atomic structure of the diamond is formed.

Select size & Cut

You may select your preferred size and favourite cut for your memorial diamond or decide to keep the rough diamond as it uniquely formed itself. Sizes start at 0.15ct for family diamonds (3 or 4 in total) and 0.3ct for rough and singular cut diamonds.

Choose the Cut of Your Memorial Diamond

diamond cuts
All diamond cuts available from Algordanza


Complete the Order Form and make a 50% deposit with the balance due at delivery or use a payment plan

Payment Plans

We offer individualized payment plans. Payments start as low as £180 per month. ALGORDANZA offers 0% interest memorial diamond payment plans with no finance fees.

Jewellery Setting

ALGORDANZA Memorial Diamonds are a beautiful tribute to your loved one and because each diamond is unique we feel it should have its own unique setting. Our Hatton Garden jeweller can create a custom setting for your one-of-a-kind memorial diamond.

Algordanza memorial diamond
Bespoke Diamond Setting

Diamond Case and Certificate

Your ALGORDANZA Memorial Diamond comes in a noble diamond case along with the ALGORDANZA certificate of authentication. With this certificate, we guarantee the authenticity, weight, cut and colour of the diamond. Furthermore, we guarantee the origin of the entire carbon source from the received cremated remains.

Algordanza Diamond Casket
Algordanza Diamond Case

Contact Us to Get Started

We would love for you to visit us at our laboratory in Switzerland or our UK office. For more information or to arrange a visit to your home please call us at 0800 0646683 or email

Posted on

Why is Memorial Jewellery so Popular?

gold cross memorial pendant with celtic engraving

Why is Memorial Jewellery so Popular?

The idea of parting with a loved ones ashes is a hard decision and so when it comes to deciding what you would like to, it has become a popular solution to turn to memorial jewellery.

The thought of scattering ashes can take families years, as they feel they cannot separate themselves from their loved ones. Memorial jewellery only requires a minimal amount of ashes to deliver a specialised gem, so you can keep your loved ones close, and still scatter their ashes somewhere special.

The memorial piece doesn’t necessarily require ashes. It can be made with a lock of hair, or even a dried flower from the funeral, set into a pendant. Memorial jewellery isn’t just about what you are sealing inside, but what it represents. It is an over-romantic, personal piece of art that stays close to the heart.

Memorial jewellery enables families to create unique and priceless heirlooms to store the memories of their loved ones. It allows them to hold them near and pass on their memory to family in the future.


Pet Cremation Jewellery

Memorial jewellery is also a way of holding onto family pets in a subtle, sentimental and personalised way, instead of alternative options like, keeping their ashes in an urn or taxidermy.

The style of memorial jewellery that most fits your needs can range from a cremation diamond to hand-blown glass pendants. They are also available in different styles, colours and can be made to fit any type of jewellery, earrings, rings, necklaces etc.

Each piece is made individually and to your specific needs, so every memorial gem will be unique and will give you the closure you desire for your loved one. The range of options for memorial jewellery means there is a price point for everyone wanting to memorialise their loved one in a beautiful jewel.

Source –

Posted on

Natural vs. Synthetic Diamonds

Doing that whole down on one knee thing? If you’re considering buying a rock you should know science has come up with a way to make stones that look exactly like natural diamonds. Sound unromantic? There are some pretty compelling reasons to consider…

Here’s what you need to know.. First of all, when we’re taking synthetic diamonds we’re not talking fakes. These ain’t no cubic zirconia. These stones are virtually identical, right down to having the same optical, physical and chemical properties as natural diamonds.

Natural diamonds are formed when carbon is compressed deep in the Earth’s crust for millions of years under intense heat and pressure. Synthetic diamond producers simulate the same conditions but speed up the process.  So instead of millions of years, we’re talking weeks! Natural diamonds are mined; synthetic diamonds are grown. There are a couple of methods, but both start with a diamond seed – that’s a tiny piece natural of synthetic diamonds. It acts as a template that forces carbon atoms to align in the same lattice crystalline structure that makes diamonds so sparkly. The result? Natural and synthetic stones are chemically identical and you can only tell the difference in a lab. In fact, since a lab-grown diamond is virtually a diamond, one grower’s group is lobbying the US Federal Trade Commission to prohibit the word synthetic when describing them. They prefer the word cultured.

Natural stones can have significant Eco and ethical costs. Mining can have serious environmental effects. Synthetic stones, on the other hand, have a much smaller footprint. There’s also a difference between synthetic and simulated diamonds. If a diamond says it’s synthetic or lab-grown, it’s a diamond – just not one that came from the ground. Stones that are sold as simulated diamonds and diamond substitutes like cubic zirconia, clear quartz and moissanite are sparkly, but they’re not diamonds.

So if you like it and want to put a ring on it, there are options.

Source – CBC Marketplace

Posted on

Understanding Grief

Although many of us are able to speak frankly about death, we still have a lot to learn about dealing wisely with its aftermath: grief, the natural reaction to the loss of a loved one and the difficulty to understand grief.

Relatively few of us know what to say or do that can be truly helpful to a relative, friend or acquaintance who is grieving. In fact, relatively few who have suffered a painful loss know how to be most helpful to themselves.

Two new books by psychotherapists who have worked extensively in the field of loss and grief are replete with stories and guidance that can help both those in mourning and the people they encounter avoid many of the common pitfalls and misunderstandings associated with grief. Both books attempt to correct false assumptions about how and how long grief might be experienced.

One book, “It’s OK That You’re Not OK,” by Megan Devine of Portland, Ore., has the telling subtitle “Meeting Grief and Loss in a Culture That Doesn’t Understand.” It grew out of the tragic loss of her beloved partner, who drowned at age 39 while the couple was on vacation. The other book, especially illuminating in its coverage of how people cope with different kinds of losses, is “Grief Works: Stories of Life, Death and Surviving,” by Julia Samuel, who works with bereaved families both in private practice and at England’s National Health Service, at St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington.

The books share a most telling message: As Ms. Samuel put it, “There is no right or wrong in grief; we need to accept whatever form it takes, both in ourselves and in others.” Recognizing loss as a universal experience, Ms. Devine hopes that “if we can start to understand the true nature of grief, we can have a more helpful, loving, supportive culture.”

Both authors emphasize that grief is not a problem to be solved or resolved. Rather, it’s a process to be tended and lived through in whatever form and however long it may take.

“The process cannot be hurried by friends and family,” however well meaning their desire to relieve the griever’s anguish, Ms. Samuel wrote. “Recovery and adjustment can take much longer than most people realize. We need to accept whatever form it takes, both in ourselves and in others.”

We can all benefit from learning how to respond to grief in ways that don’t prolong, intensify or dismiss the pain. Likewise, those trying to help need to know that grief cannot be fit into a preordained time frame or form of expression. Too often people who experience a loss are disparaged because their mourning persists longer than others think reasonable or because they remain self-contained and seem not to mourn at all.

I imagine, for example, that some adults thought my stoical response to my mother’s premature death when I was 16 was “unnatural.” In truth, after tending to her for a year as she suffered through an unstoppable cancer, her death was a relief. It took a year for me to shed my armor and openly mourn the incalculable loss. But 60 years later, I still treasure her most important legacy: To live each day as if it could be my last but with an eye on the future in case it’s not.

Likewise, I was relieved when my husband’s suffering ended six weeks after diagnosis of an incurable cancer. Though I missed him terribly, I seemed to go on with my life as if little had changed. Few outside of the immediate family knew that I was honouring his dying wish that I continue to live fully for my own sake and that of our children and grandchildren.

Just as we all love others in our own unique ways, so do we mourn their loss in ways that cannot be fit into a single mold or even a dozen different molds. Last month, James G. Robinson, director of global analytics for The New York Times, described a 37-day, 6,150-mile therapeutic road trip he took with his family following the death of his 5-year-old son, collecting commemorative objects along the way and giving each member of the family a chance to express anger and sadness about the untimely loss.

Ms. Devine maintains that most grief support offered by professionals and others takes the wrong approach by encouraging mourners to move through the pain. While family and friends naturally want you to feel better, “pain that is not allowed to be spoken or expressed turns in on itself, and creates more problems,” she wrote. “Unacknowledged and unheard pain doesn’t go away. The way to survive grief is by allowing pain to exist, not in trying to cover it up or rush through it.”

As a bereaved mother told Ms. Samuel, “You never ‘get over it,’ you ‘get on with it,’ and you never ‘move on,’ but you ‘move forward.’”

Ms. Devine agrees that being “encouraged to ‘get over it’ is one of the biggest causes of suffering inside grief.” Rather than trying to “cure” pain, the goal should be to minimize suffering, which she said “comes when we feel dismissed or unsupported in our pain, with being told there is something wrong with what you feel.”

She explains that pain cannot be “fixed,” that companionship, not correction, is the best way to deal with grief. She encourages those who want to be helpful to “bear witness,” to offer friendship without probing questions or unsolicited advice, help if it is needed and wanted, and a listening ear no matter how often mourners wish to tell their story.

To those who grieve, she suggests finding a nondestructive way to express it. “If you can’t tell your story to another human, find another way: journal, paint, make your grief into a graphic novel with a very dark storyline. Or go out to the woods and tell the trees. It is an immense relief to be able to tell your story without someone trying to fix it.”

She also suggests keeping a journal that records situations that either intensify or relieve suffering. “Are there times you feel more stable, more grounded, more able to breathe inside your loss? Does anything — a person, a place, an activity — add to your energy bank account? Conversely, are there activities or environments that absolutely make things worse?”

Whenever possible, to decrease suffering choose to engage in things that help and avoid those that don’t.

Posted on

Ashes into Memorial Jewellery Options




There has been an increase in customer demands in the memorial jewellery in the past few years. The evolving ideas cater to the sentimental values attached to such jewellery and thereby come up with innovations that help people connect with the deceased better.


Cremation/Memorial Jewellery

This unique concept allows you to keep a personalized memory of a dear one in an exclusive compartment. There are several options available in such jewellery including Heartsangel wings, teardrop, cross etc depending on your personal preferences. The commonly used material for cremation jewellery includes gold, silver, and stainless steel.

These pendants can normally hold a small amount of the ashes inside, as an alternative to traditional urns. Most customers choose to have loved one’s name or Celtic patterns or loved pet’s paw prints engraved on the jewellery to make it very personal.

The very fact that emotional attachments are embodied through designer jewellery pieces makes these items a very popular choice.  Alternative Endings has wide selections of amazing memorial jewellery.

gold cross memorial pendant with celtic engraving
Gold cross memorial pendant with optional engraving.
gold heart paw print memorial pendant
Gold heart paw print memorial pendant to hold cremation ash of your loved one.

Cremation/Memorial Diamond

This is a relatively new idea that is rapidly gaining popularity, mainly because it is a very sentimental way to remember the loved ones. The memorial diamond producer will extract carbon from the collected cremation ashes or some hair from the deceased ones.  The skilled craftsman would use advanced technology to cut the diamonds into different shapes.

Brilliant hues of colours are available for cremation diamonds making them attractive keepsakes. The most natural diamond colours from the ashes should either clear or blue due to the Carbon extract.  However, there are memorial diamond producers provides other coloured diamond, that is because the coloured diamonds are normally added with different chemicals.  (

The most credible memorial diamond producers in the UK market are Algordanza Switzerland and Life Gem. Algordanza Memorial Diamonds believes there should be no added chemicals to the ashes, the memorial diamonds should present the deceased one as they were.



Posted on

Diamonds are Forever with Algordanza

Turn the cremated remains of a loved one into a diamond and unique “in memoriam” object

“Every diamond from each person is slightly different. It’s always unique,” explains the Ronaldo Willy, the founder of Swiss company Algordanza. Thanks to Willy, family members can now carry more than a memory of a loved one with them – they can carry Grandma herself.In memoriam never looked so dazzling. And with over 900 “remembrance” diamonds created annually, Algordanza considers itself to be a stand-out player in today’s flurry of end of life options. In 2013 alone, we’ve learned that we could become part of a coral reef or a planted tree; a man-made cloud or interred in a skyscraper cemetery.

Algordanza is different. It’s just as innovative, but it’s also a firm guardian of the familiar, upholding the memorial tradition of “the family heirloom.”

“It’s a wonderful and ageless alliance to a beloved person.”
–Algordanza on its cremation diamonds

algordanza lab man-made diamond

The Algordanza lab.

natural diamond is formed deep within the Earth’s mantle, surfacing after millions of years through a volcanic eruption. Algordanza recreates a similar phenomenon at a toasty 2000 degrees Fahrenheit to make their memorial diamonds, in which a loved one’s cremation ashes are reduced to carbon and compressed for weeks.

“They are solely generated from the cremation ashes handed over – without any additives and admixtures.”

Most of the diamonds are ordered by family members for their loved ones, Willy says, but on occasion, people come to them with their own end of life plans in mind.

algordanza diamond

An Algordanza diamond.

There’s also an element in Algordanza’s cremated stones that you can’t find in any other natural or man-made diamond: they turn out blue. Due to the fact that humans contain varying amounts of boron, there are endless variations in colour for each person’s stone. The colour brings an appropriate air to the “in memoriam” object by evoking at once serenity, somberness and reflection. That there are unique shades for each diamond only adds to the gem’s role as an extension of the loved one’s individuality – a final, eternal thumbprint.

Posted on

How Algordanza Diamonds are Made

A great article about Algordanza Memorial Diamonds with insights on how to turn Ashes into diamonds, from Business Insider UK by Kelly Dickerson:

The idea of wearing your deceased loved one around your finger or neck might be a little unsettling, but that’s exactly what a company called Algordanza does: transform human ashes into a diamond.

We first heard about the service through the film “As Above, So Below” at the Imagine Science Film Festival, and were so intrigued we asked Algordanza for more details on how you can transform a human’s cremated remains into a diamond.

How diamonds form naturally

Diamonds are essentially just pressurized carbon atoms. When carbon atoms are exposed to extreme pressure and high temperatures, they stick together in an organized fashion to form crystals. One carbon atom covalently bonds to four others during this process, and the longer the carbon stays under extreme pressure and heat, the more carbon atoms will lock together in this rigid formation, and the bigger the diamond will be.

Since diamonds are made of carbon, and the human body is roughly 18% carbon, it’s possible to transform human ashes into diamonds. Skeletal fragments are the only thing that remains after a human is cremated, and they are ground up and presented to the family in an urn.

It’s possible to separate out the carbon from the other elements in the ashes and those carbon atoms can be used to mimic the natural diamond-making process in the lab. These “memorial” diamonds produced by Algordanza have the exact same physical and chemical properties as regular diamonds, according to the Algordanza website.

The cremation of a typical adult produces about five pounds of ashes, and according to the Algordanza website, at least 1.1 pounds of those ashes are required for the process to work.

The Algordanza process

Creating a diamond from human ashes is actually pretty simple.

Each sample of ashes is first chemically analyzed. Frank Ripka, Algordanza’s CTO, said this is an essential step because every country has its own traditions and laws that determine how a cremation is handled. Before any chemical alterations can be made, the non-carbon elements that get mixed in with human ashes — things like salts — are sorted out, dissolved, and then removed. This kind of cleaning process is necessary because a high-quality diamond can only form if the sample is at least 99% carbon.

But Ripka said the first cleaning is not enough. The ashes are put into a growing cell like the one in the picture below, and a catalyst made of a mixture of elements like iron and cobalt is added, which helps pull out even more contaminants from the ashes.

Tools with Growing cell.JPGThese growing cells help remove impurities from the ashes. Algordanza/courtesy of Frank Ripka

The cleaned ashes are then put in a chamber like the one below. Intense pressure and heat are gradually applied, and the carbon actually turns into graphite. Graphite is just a different physical state of carbon where the atoms are bonded together in flat sheets. Ripka said the pressure eventually reaches about six gigapascals (60,000 times the pressure of the Earth’s atmosphere) and the temperature rises to about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit.

The atoms bind tightly together under this extreme pressure and temperature in the same way natural diamonds form.

growcellThe diamond-making chamber puts the carbon from the ashes under intense pressure and heat. Algordanza/courtesy of Frank Ripka

According to Ripka it only takes about a week for the diamonds to form since they grow at a rate of about 0.2-0.4 carats per day in the lab.

A diamond that forms in a natural environment expands in all directions. These are called raw diamonds. But if the carbon is put in a growing cell, it allows technicians to grow the diamond in a predetermined shape, and that’s why you can order different “cuts” of a diamond. Algordanza grows both kinds. You can see one of their raw diamonds below.

memorial diamondA Raw diamond created from human ashes. Algordanza/courtesy of Frank Ripka

The company can not actually guarantee what the resulting diamond will look like — it will be more white like a naturally formed diamond, or might have a bluish tint to it. The blue colour comes from the presence of the element Boron. Humans have different levels of Boron in their bodies, so the amount of bluish tint depends on the person.

How long carbon is subjected to pressure and heat determines the carat size of the diamond that forms, though there is a limit. In the lab diamond size is limited by the growing cell and the chamber that supplies the heat and pressure, so the largest diamond you can order from Algordanza is one carat.

Ripka said the process for growing diamonds in a lab is common knowledge, but there are very few experts in the field. It takes about four to six months for Algordanza to complete an order from the time the consumer places the order to the time their diamond is delivered.

“It’s a kind of science, but it’s also art,” Ripka said. Contact the company for orders, but beware, the diamond-making process isn’t cheap, though the resulting diamond will be “an everlasting keepsake, remembrance, or heirloom to pass to future generations.”

Posted on

Diamonds are Forever


ALOGRDANZA, the only ISO Certified memorial diamond producer with their lab in Switzerland, turns cremation ashes into beautiful memorial diamonds which last forever and can be passed down as heirlooms.

Recently, a customer of ours at Algordanza UK had a diamond made from her father’s remains and set in her engagement and wedding ring so her father could still walk with her down the aisle. Another customer had a memorial diamond made from her husband’s ashes and set in a heart shape pendant because she wanted to keep their hearts close at all times. It is a comforting way for the bereaved to remember those who meant so much to them when they were alive.

So, How does it work?

Founded in 2004 by Rinaldo Willy, Algordanza, using their own technology have produced thousands of Memorial Diamonds in their lab surrounded by the Swiss mountains in Chur. The isolated carbon is put under pressure of 16 tons and with a temperature of 1’400 degrees Celsius the memorial diamond grows around a starter crystal. The growth process depends on the desired size of the Memorial Diamond. The rough diamond is carefully obtained from the growing cell. The starter crystal that initiated the growth process has dissolved. Rough diamonds can be chosen or any of the standard diamond cuts.

The memorial diamond varies in colour from clear to differnet shades of blue depending on the amount of the element boron that is in the ashes which we all have in our bodies. Just as no two human beings are like, no two diamonds are identical, your diamonds will be truly unique.

Unlike the other memorial diamond producers, ALGORDANZA do NOT add anything to the process; each order is marked with a unique reference number and produced with the utmost caution and precision. We document our rigorous quality control with the certificate and guarantee authenticity, weight, cut, color and the origin of the Memorial Diamond having been created from the delivered cremation ashes, making sure that the diamond is 100 percent of the loved ones.


Cost of Diamonds

The cost of the diamond depends on the size and shape of your personal memorial diamond. ALGORDANZA diamond price starts from £2,800 for a 0.25ct diamond, unshaped rough diamonds are cheaper. Managing Director, Kevin Foy at ALGORDANZA UK wanted to offer a bespoke jewellery service and has sourced a Hatton Garden jewellery designer to use the latest CAD technology to help clients design their own jewellery to create a truly one off exclusive piece of art.

We are a premium brand and it is up to the customers to decide which is valued more for the memories of their loved ones – price or quality. ALGORDANZA UK also provide you with alternative financial options for purchasing.


ALGORDANZA has its headquarters in Chur, Switzerland. ALGORDANZA is a word derived from the ancient language Rhaeto-Romanic, meaning “remembrance.” Swiss companies have a notable and respected reputation for producing high-quality pieces. Currently, the we are the only ISO certified producer of memorial diamonds represented in over 30 countries, and committed to caution and transparency. If you would like to visit our production site and laboratory in Switzerland, personally hand the remains over or would like to pick up your unique Memorial Diamond personally, we are pleased to make an appointment for your visit. (Kevin & Rinaldo at Algordanza HQ)